Why Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Still Not Broadly Used for Individual


In recent years, with the further development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has continued to decrease, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) has been increasingly applied to genetic disease detection, which has improved the diagnosis rate of diseases.

The Question

However, it comes with the question: does the widely used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) currently suitable for clinical application? It is likely that whole-genome sequencing will subsume genetic testing for individual or even panels of genes, replacing individual genotyping assays with a comprehensive assessment of genetic variation.

  1. Doctors are too tired to analyze and explain so many VUS, laboratory data analysis and clinical is in disjunction. Is there any reanalysis for undiagnosed cases and re-collection of clinical phenotypes is not yet determined.
  1. The whole genome sequencing costis high, and the information that could be read out is little. It is still in the scientific research stage, and the clinical application is still early.
  1. Since clinical applications are considered, the main purpose of clinical diagnosis should consider accuracy, periodicity and cost. Scientific research must use research funding!
  1. At present, the cost of WGS is still high, and the sequencing, analysis and interpretation is too time consuming. The information useful to patients is similar to the sequencing of exons.
  1. For single-gene disease, the combination of WES aCGH/SNP-array/CMA has been able to meet most reequipments. Compared with WES, WGS does have a wider coverage, but WGS detects too many variations, such as deep variation in non-coding regions, and a large number of small fragmentsof hundred bp, kb-level deletions/repetitions. These variations are difficult to explain. WGS is not fundamentally different from WES. The most important thing at present is not to expand the genome range of detection, but to expand variants that can be accurately detected, such as repeated amplification of polynucleotides. Compared with the NGS’s WGS for clinical use, it is better to wait for the technical matureness of third generations of sequencing.
  1. Currently, at least the near future, I personally think that WGS is not suitable for clinical applications. Reason 1, cost considerations. The cost of sequencing a single WGS basically equal to the cost of the current trios’ family, but the positive rate has not increased significantly (data shows 40% of WES and 42% of WGS), and the cost of analysis has increased significantly. Reason 2, without available reference database. Even if more deep intron sites are detected, there is no way to make a pathogenic judgment. Although WGS is superior to WES in terms of detection rate of CNV and SV, low-cost detection method is an alternative.

A Comparison Study of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) in Clinical Setting


In recent years, with the further development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has continued to decrease, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) has been increasingly applied to genetic disease detection, which has improved the diagnosis rate of diseases. However, it comes with the question: does the widely used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) currently suitable for clinical application?

The study

On March 22nd, Genet Med. published an article online (PMID: 29565419) entitled Whole-genome sequencing offers additional but limited clinical utility compared with reanalysis of whole-exome sequencing.

There have been few previous comparisons of WGS and WES for the detection rate of genetic diseases. After screening, a total of 108 patients were enrolled in the WGS analysis. Their gene chip and WES test both showed negative results and their clinical data and previous sequencing raw data were preserved intact. After WGS test, the results showed that 10 cases (9%) of positive results, 5 cases were uncertain, and 93 cases were negative.

The authors analyzed the reasons for the positive results of 10 cases of WGS, including three aspects:

(1) The academic background of WES and WGS: Although WES also detected mutation site on the 1st, 2cd, and 3rd case, it was not reported as the pathogenic site, mainly because at the time of detection, the correlation between pathogenic gene and clinical phenotype has not been determined yet;

(2) The influence of structural variation and non-coding region variation: such as the 4th, 5th, and 6th case;

(3) Impact of sequencing platform: The 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th case belongs to this situation. The mutation sites were detected by WES on the Illumina platform.

In summary, among the 10 cases with negative WES previously, 7 cases were detected by WES reanalysis and WGS, and 3 cases were detected by WGS for structural variation and non-coding region variation.

Why Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Is Important for Clinical Applications?

  1. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has broad spectrum of applications in clinical field, especially for diseases with unexplained clinical conditions, especially children with poor development and mental retardation. If Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA), Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) unable to diagnose, WGS could be another option.
  2. Due to the uniformity brought by WGS, 30X coverage is generally considered to be very sufficient. Without depending on capture reagents, WGS is easier to achieve the basic unification on the wet lab, and save some cost.

For WGS price, the market completion is fierce and good for reducing cost. So, I think it is very likely that WGS will become mainstream in the near future.

Another benefit of WGS is its homogeneity of mtDNA. Theoretically it could solve the difficulty of finding large CNV and partial heterogeneity problems in mtDNA.

  1. Although WGS is not suitable for clinical application at present, it is tentative to start trials in some “pilot” units.

Compared with WES, WGS can find non-coding/intronic variants, CNV/SV, skip the need for capture, etc. The difficulty lies in the cost of interpretation and sequencing. As the cost of sequencing decreases, the superiority of WGS will become more apparent. Therefore, the application of WGS in the clinic is only a matter of time.

However, what is the best practice for WGS, is still a question for colleagues and experts to work together to study and explore.

Outsourcing Plastic Molding And Mold Making In China, Trust But Verify

Nearly every single plastic molding company in the US and Europe has or is considering sending work to China, no surprise here. The incentives are very real, as are the pressures. Not only are the financial matters pressing, but some customers actually demand a China presence.

Considering the fact that China has become the world’s second largest economy, passing Germany and Japan, the potential for growth is huge, to put it mildly.

Most people recall the very poor quality of Chinese products just a few years ago. Some products are still of very low quality and it seems that you actually get what you pay for in many cases.

On the other hand, the concept of actual built-in quality seems to be slowly sinking into the national mentality, albeit very slowly. Some areas, such as Hong Kong, have a much better tradition of adapting European quality.

When Ronald Reagan was president, he was deeply involved with the arms race with the Soviet Union. One of his favorite phrases was a translation of a Russian proverb: “Trust but verify.” This became his mantra when dealing with Mikhail Gorbachev concerning the INF treaty.

This would be a good mantra for anyone doing plastic molding in China: “Trust but verify.” It seems that the mold makers and molders, and maybe others as well, have a tendency to do what you pay for when you are present, and then cut corners when you are not present.

Without attempting to sound condescending or judgmental, this just is the case. Of course there are countless exceptions, nevertheless, it is still advisable to trust but verify.

A real-life case in point is the fact that American companies usually insist on brand name mold components in their injection molds. Nobody wants a low-grade, soft ejector pin in their mold, for example. So, most people insist on PCS, DME or Progressive ejector pins.

Oddly, after a few thousand shots, the pins bend, break, pit and flake. Yet the pin has PCS etched right into the steel, so how could this be? Simple enough, it was made in a little shop that makes one pin for every company known and just etches whatever name is required. They don’t care if the steel is not H13, just so it works for a while and they make their money.

Anyone who has traveled in developing countries knows about this sort of thing. It happens all the time with just about anything that can be copied or pirated. I once bought a Disney movie before it was in the theaters! You can buy passports, driver’s licenses, birth certificates and anything else you want.

Once you build a working relationship with a Chinese supplier you would think that you are set and don’t need to trust and verify. Wrong. If that were the case, every mold that came in would be right, made using proper techniques and have documented sizes and materials.

That just is not the case, unfortunately, but it doesn’t seem to make much difference to the accounting department in some companies. The mold is so inexpensive that you can just re-work it and still make money. Don’t ask the mold maker about this though.

Find more manufacturers & suppliers: China plastic manufacturer

Mechanical Design of Biomedical Products Using Plastics

Biomedical products typically have physical requirements that differ in some respects from other products. Those requirements usually center on the need for materials and configurations that are compatible with the human body. Not only are such products regulated by FDA requirements, but they must also be able to withstand multiple sterilization cycles involving high temperatures or the use of solvents, or both.

To design parts in the biomedical industry it is necessary to understand the properties of biomedical safe materials, and to understand the constraints on processing those materials to produce sound and economical parts. Not all injection molding factories have both the capability and experience to mold these materials. As an example, parts have been designed and molded both domestically and abroad using Lexan HP2NR and Lexan HPX4. Both of these are FDA approved biocompatibility tested (FDA USP Class VI/ISO10993) plastics.

Lexan HP2NR is clear Polycarbonate plastic. 121C autoclavable for a handful of cycles. As an example, this material is being utilized in a lens for a product used for skin care treatment. The molding resource has been able to mold this material at almost defect free levels in the past 2 years. Lexan HPX4 is a Siloxane copolymer. It performs better in autoclave at 121C (a few dozen cycles, again depends on in-mold stress, morpholine level in autoclave etc. It has a slight haze in its natural state. An example of a biomedical application of this material is a part being colored with FDA approved dye to a gray Pantone 430C color when molded on an oral device used by sleep apnea patients. After molding, the parts go through a thermal press process that creates 300+ features necessary for the retention of the epoxy applied by the user. Parts are thoroughly cleaned in isopropyl alcohol solution, heat dried then bagged and boxed for shipment.

In addition to understanding the issues relating to the materials employed in designing and producing biomedical products it is also necessary to have a good grasp on ergonomic principles and the ability to apply those principles in design. Ergonomics is defined as the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities. It is always good to consider ergonomics in product design, but in the biomedical arena it is usually critical to the success of the product.

In summary, a successful biomedical product development should be characterized by carefully considered selection of materials and the capability to properly process those materials. Additionally, biomedical product development should also consider a strong dedication to ergonomic principles.

China-plasticmolding cooperates with dozens of Injection Molding Factories, we are a professional Injection Molding Company in China, offers custom injection molding service since 2003.

A Review of Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life


Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life was first published on Cell Host &Microbe in 2015. Authors include Fredrik Bckhed and Jovanna Dahlgren.

Experiment Design

Sample: intestinal microbes of 98 mothers and newborn babies (mostly Swedish)

Sequencing strategy: using metagenomic sequencing, a total of 1.52Tb of data, an average of 3.99Gb/sample

Analysis Procedures

  1. Based on the metagenomic data, the gene catalog was established at each time point by de novo assembly, and the KEGG database was used to generate the gene functional annotation.
  2. According to the abundance of different samples, contigs were assembled by binning, and 4356 genomes (>0.9Mb) were obtained by co-assembly. These assembled genomes are supplemented by 1147 genomes in NCBI.
  3. All genomes were subsequently clustered to obtain 690 unique metagenomic OTUs (MetaOTUs), which was equivalent to the classification of species.

Analysis Content

The Phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroides were the most abundant among all detected microorganisms, followed by actinomycetes and proteobacteria. According to the metagenomic data species annotations, a total of 373 MetaOTUs were annotated to the species, and the remaining 317 represented new species that were associated with known species. Most of the MetaOTUs obtained from newborns are also found in mothers, and the abundance is gradually increasing. As revealed by Figure 1, the red area is Novel MetaOTUs, the outer circle is the species annotated to the door level, the inner circle is the species that is gazing to the genus level, and the middle circle represents the abundance of each MetaOTUs of different samples.

Figure 1. MetaOTUs phylogenetic tree

By using unweighted UniFrac distance PCoA analysis of all samples, the samples were clustered according to age. The 12-month neonatal situation was most similar to that of the mother, because the neonatal intestinal microflora structure had stabilized.

With age growing, the alpha diversity in the neonatal intestinal flora gradually increased, while the beta diversity gradually decreased, indicating that the microbial species in the community became more complex, and the differences between communities became smaller.

Next, the authors performed a comparison of the gut microbiota structure of neonates with C-section and vaginally born. The result turned out to be consistent with the PCoA results. As the age increases, the bacterial composition tends to approach mothers. However, due to the absence of maternal birth canal, the number of maternal microorganisms obtained at the time of birth is small. Compared with the vaginally newborn, their establishment of microorganisms in the intestine is slow and some of the flora is missing.

Figure 2. A comparison of the gut microbiota structure of neonates with C-section and vaginally born

The metagenomic analysis also reveals the energy utilization of the neonatal intestinal flora over time. The function of the fecal flora in the first year of delivery is improved, and the phosphotransferase system (PTS) gene related to carbohydrate absorption is rich in the neonatal intestinal flora.

The gut flora of neonatal and 4-month-old neonatal is enriched with the gene that digests the sugar in the breast milk, at which point the sugar is the main source of energy. The β-glucose-specific transporter is the most abundant in newborns at 4 months and 12 months of age. The intestinal flora of 12-month-old newborns is enriched with genes that break down polysaccharides and starch and is associated with an increase in Bacteroides variabilis, which has all the enzymes involved in polysaccharide digestion.

Figure 3. KO pathway

Bacteria in the gut of virginally newborns include: Enterococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, Streptococcus, and Rothia Geory and Brown, indicating a relatively oxygen-rich intestinal environment. The 4-month neonatal gut flora is characterized by Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Collins, Granulicatella, and Vesococcus, indicating a gradual decrease in intestinal oxygen concentration and an increase in the ability to produce and utilize lactic acid. The diet at this time is mainly breast milk.

The characteristics of the 12-month neonatal gut flora include: bacteria found in newborns and in 4-month old newborns (as previously listed), and only present in 12 months Bacteria, such as the genus Eichhornia.

Figure 4. Characteristics of intestinal flora in different periods of caesarean section


As an important research tool, metagenomics can get a lot of high-value information in the process of microbial population research. It is of great significance for further research on microbial-related metabolism and immunity.

Features of CD Genomics Metagenomic Sequencing

  1. Rich experience in sample processing

Such as soil, sediment, intestinal contents, manure, water, air, dairy products…CD Genomics has rich experience in various sample extraction;

  1. High quality data

CD Genomics has a wide range of technical platforms to obtain high quality data;

  1. Satisfactory analysis report

More database annotations for more analysis results

  1. Deep data mining capacity and comprehensive follow-up customer services

CD Genomics has professional bioinformatics analysis team, powerful experimental and sequencing platform to provide microbial genome de novo resequencing16S/18S/ITS, metagenomics, transcriptome sequencing and other micro-site one-stop sequencing analysis services.

Handbook of 16S rDNA Sequencing: The Past and the Present

The basic concept of 16S rDNA

16S rDNA is one of most useful and most commonly used molecular clocks in the systematic classification of bacteria. It has few species but large content (about 80% of bacterial RNA content). Its molecular size is moderate and exists in all organisms. Its evolution has been smooth and is highly conservative in structure and function. It is known as “bacterial fossil”. In most prokaryotes, rDNA has multiple copies, and the copy number of 5S, 16S, and 23S rDNA is the same. 16S rDNA is moderately sized, about 1.5Kb, which can reflect the differences between various strains, and can be easily obtained by sequencing technology, so it is widely accepted by bacteriologists and taxonomists. In short, 16S rDNA is universal, conservative, moderately sized and has variable zone.

To be more specific, this article summarizes its features as follows:

1. 16S rRNA is ubiquitous in prokaryotes. rRNA is involved in the process of protein synthesis. Its function is essential to any organism, and it remains unchanged during the long course of biological evolution. It can be seen as a time clock for biological evolution.

2. In 16S rRNA molecule, it contains both highly conserved sequence regions and moderately conserved and highly variable sequence regions, so it is suitable for the study of various biological phylogenetic relationships with different evolutionary distances.

3. The relative molecular weight of 16S rRNA is moderate, about 1540 nucleotides, which is convenient for sequence analysis.

4. The variable region sequence varies from bacteria to bacteria, and the constant region sequence is basically conserved. Therefore, primers can be designed by using the constant region sequence to amplify the 16S rDNA fragment, and the difference between the variable region sequences can be used for different genus and strains. Based on this, the bacteria were classified and identified.

16S structure

The 16S rRNA gene sequence includes 9 variable regions and 10 conserved regions. The conserved region sequence reflects the genetic relationship between species, while the variable region sequence reflects the differences between species.

Figure 1. 16S rRNA gene sequence

Strain identification based on 16S full-length (first generation sequencing)

Object: pure colonies that have been cultivated

Technology: first generation sequencer 3730

Process: Nucleic Acid Extraction –> Gene Amplification –> Product Purification –> Sequencing Reaction –> Sequence Alignment


Graph LR


Nucleic Acid Extraction–>Gene Amplification


Gene amplification–>product purification


Product purification–>sequencing reaction


Sequencing reaction–>sequence alignment

Commonly used primer sequence by 16S full length (see Table 1):

Table 1. Commonly used primer sequence by 16S full length

Reagent cost: about $15

Advantages: it can assist routine strain identification methods, such as microscopic morphology and culture characteristics as well as physical and chemical properties, including nutrient type, carbon and nitrogen source utilization capacity, various metabolic reactions, enzyme reactions and serological reactions, etc., to improve the accuracy of strain identification.

Disadvantages: it can only be used for pure bacteria!

Bacterial structure analysis based on 16S (Next-generation sequencing)

Objects: clinical samples (such as feces, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, urine, etc.), environmental samples (soil, sewage, etc.)

Technology: second-generation sequencers, such as Hiseq and Miseq from Illumina, Ion Torrent from Thermo, and 454 from Roche (discontinued)

Process: Genomic DNA –> Sample Quality Control –> PCR Amplification Database –> Library Quality Control –> Illumina Hiseq2500/Miseq Sequencing –> Raw Data –> Data Quality Control –> High Quality Data –> Bioinformatics Analysis

Some commonly used primer sequences are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Primer selection table for specific 16S rRNA gene region to be amplified

Reagent cost: about $15 ~ $60/sample, determined by the use of consumable grade and labor costs.

Advantages: By detecting the sequence variation and abundance of 16S rDNA, the classification and abundance of bacteria is revealed in the sample, obtaining sample species classification, species abundance, population structure, phylogenetic evolution, community comparison, etc., which can be used for detection of unknown clinical samples and finding pathogens.


(1) Limited by the read length of the second-generation sequencing, currently only two of the nine variable regions of 16S can be measured, generally the V3-V4 region. Therefore, for the resolution of the flora, some strains can only be distinguished to the genus level.

(2) Lack of SOP experimental program. Different experimental factors have a greater impact on the experimental results.

(3) The 16S metagenomics can also be used for functional studies, but not accurate, compared to the WGS metagenomic sequencing.

The Future of 16S: Third Generation Sequencing

Pacbio sequencing technology for 16S metagenomics has been published. A reference article: High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling.

9 variable areas are tested on the machine, with high resolution and high accuracy, which is more suitable for unknown pathogen detection and other scientific research applications in clinical samples.

Unfortunately, due to unresolved sample pooling and other reasons, its price remains high.

About author:

As a leading provider of NGS services and a partner of Illumina, CD Genomics offers a portfolio of solutions for metagenomics sequencing. 16S/18S/ITS amplicon sequencing is characterized by cost-efficiency, high-speed and practicability to help you identify and investigate the microbial community. With over 10 years of experience, we can totally meet your project requirements and budgets in the exploration of microbial biodiversity.

creep in plastic materials

In material sciences, creep is sometimes referred to as cold flow. In this regard, the difference between plastics and other materials is that plastics display time-dependent viscoelastic behavior. Viscoelastic behavior is the property of a material to display both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. It can result from long-term exposure to high levels of stress that are still beneath the yield strength or yield point of the material. The yield strength or yield point of a material is the property defined as the stress at which that material begins to deform permanently. Deformation refers to any change in the shape of an object due to an applied force or a change in temperature. The first instance can be the result of tensile forces, sometimes called pulling forces, compressive forces (pushing forces), or shear, bending or torsion (twisting). Deformation is often described as “strain”. Prior to the yield point, the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible.

Types of Creep
There are various kinds of creep. Nabarro-Herring creep is a form of diffusion creep that is strongly temperature dependent. Coble creep is a second form of diffusion-controlled creep. It is still temperature dependent but not as much as the Nabarro-Herring creep. Harper-Dorn creep has been observed in aluminum, lead and tin systems as well as some ceramics, ice and some solders. The first two types of creep are grain size dependent while the Harper-Dorn creep is dislocation-motion dependent.

Stages of Creep
Creep is one of the most commonly studied long-term property tests performed. Creep does not happen suddenly, but rather results as an application of stress over the long term. Creep is therefore a time dependent deformation. There are three stages of creep. In the first stage, referred to as “Primary Creep,” the strain rate is at first relatively high, but slows over time. In Secondary Creep, the creep occurs at a relatively uniform rate and is called at this point “creep strain rate”. Finally, Tertiary Creep occurs at an accelerated creep rate and ends when the material breaks or ruptures.

Rate of Deformation
There are several functions of a material that determine the rate of deformation. These include the properties of the material, exposure time, exposure temperature and the structural load that is applied. In fact, depending on the amount of stress applied, how long it is applied, the temperature and the applied structural load, the deformation may be so large that a component can no longer perform in the application for which it is designed. A turbine blade would be one example. The creep may be so great that over time the blade will make contact with the casing, causing the blade to fail. Creep may not result in a failure mode. It can be desirable in concrete because it relieves tensile stress that could result in cracking.

Find more information about plastic mold injection technique view here: China Plastic Injection Molding

Mineral Makeup – Why Use Mineral Cosmetics?

Liquid makeup is so yesterday. These days, women the world over are wearing the new “hot” product – mineral makeup.

Those who haven’t converted, however, might be unclear on the concept. What’s all the fuss about anyway? Isn’t putting minerals on your face a bit odd?

Mineral cosmetics and makeup is hot for a reason. There are many benefits to using this natural product on your skin, which we’ll outline here.



First, many women are attracted to the all-natural quality of mineral makeup. The makeup is composed of minerals that are extracted from the earth. They are first pulverized into a powered form; they are also sterilized so they are safe to use.

The makeup is a combination of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and micronized minerals. There are no chemicals (which is a common cause of irritation and inflammation in the skin). Mineral makeup also naturally contains iron.

Unlike many liquid makeup types, mineral makeup contains no talc, perfumes or dyes.

This natural element is one of the main reasons that women are attracted to mineral makeup. It’s one more way to bring the natural in and leave the chemicals out.


One of the top reasons women give for wearing mineral cosmetics is the look they get from the makeup. Specifically, mineral makeup is soft, and provides the skin with a natural glow.

Rarely will women who use mineral makeup get a heavy, overdone look to their skin. Often, it appears they aren’t wearing makeup at all. Because the makeup is so light and airy, it also feels like nothing is on the skin.

Skin care

Women concerned about their skin are also attracted to mineral makeup because its natural state ensures that it doesn’t clog pores or dry skin out.

Unlike liquid makeup, natural makeup and cosmetics is suitable for all skin types. You don’t have to shop for the “oily” skin makeup, or the makeup that’s best for dry skin. Mineral makeup is naturally the best makeup for all skin types.


Applying mineral and natural makeup is generally easier than applying liquid makeup. There is no line of demarcation to worry about and applying the makeup is as simple as applying the makeup to a brush and applying to the face.

Many women like that they can mix a few shades to get the perfect shade for their skin. And if it’s summer, they can add a slightly darker makeup to the mix and get the right shade, while in winter, they can keep it lighter, all without having to change makeup for the seasons.

Long-term benefits

Finally, using natural makeup can provide long-term benefits to the wearer. Many people believe that mineral makeup is naturally better for the skin than other kinds of makeup, so it’s believed that your skin will have fewer problems with dryness, oiliness or other irritations.

Most mineral cosmetic makeup brands also have a natural SPF, so your skin is also provided from both UVB and UVA rays.

There are many benefits to using mineral makeup beyond looking pretty.

Maybe you are interested in testing product for free, here is a big chance, view more: Test Makeup Products Free

Super Matte Top Coat from BeautyBigBang

Hey lovelies! I just reviewed a cotton claw by BeautyBigBang a few minutes ago, and now it is time to review a matte top coat from BeautyBigBang.

Now, I did not wear the following mani for longer than 2 hours, so I cannot speak on how long this matte top coat lasts. Therefore, I’m not going to give this product a “My rating” since wear-time is a part of that rating. I just haven’t gotten into wearing matte manis, so if you guys want to know how long a mani lasts with this matte top coat, let me know in the comments below. Other than that, let’s get into the swatch and review!

*The following swatches are applied over ÜNT Ready for Takeoff and topped with Glisten & Glow Top Coat BEFORE applying the matte top coat. Chocolate Praline Layered Cake was used as the base color.

Super Matte Top Coat (SKU: 66330)

Matte Nail Polish Top Coat

Description: Use this matte top coat to turn any nail polish color to a dull flat matte finish.

Application: Smooth application, not streaky, & easy to use brush. No white specs were left behind (that’s a spec of glitter on my index nail; it wasn’t from the matte top coat).

Availability: Available now.

Drying time: 1-2 minutes.

Price: $3.59 USD

Overall thoughts: This matte top coat nail polish gives a really nice finish, and I will definitely use it for future swatches. If you’re a matte lover, I highly recommend this matte top coat.

Chrome nails: How to do it at home – in 6 easy steps!

Are you also obsessed with mirror nails or chrome nails? They are so shiny that I can’t get enough! Luckily enough it’s very easy to get the true mirror chrome finish at home. I will show you how to get this eye-catching trend in six easy steps.

To get started with this chrome nails tutorial, you do, however, need some products. But don’t be afraid, all the steps are simple. And with all the material included, this is still cheaper than going to the salon – especially considering that you can use the products again and again.

How to do Chrome nails at home – in 6 easy steps!

What you need

Gel polish*
Base Coat
Chrome nail powder
UV- or LED Lamp
Top Coat

*In this tutorial I have used Lackryl. It’s a new Swedish acrylic polish that has everything in one bottle. You don’t need to apply base coat, primer and top coat – but you can, of course, use traditional gel polish as well. If you, however, come across Lackryl I would definitely recommend it as it’s makes everything even easier and faster.

But as it’s not available to the rest of the world yet, I will describe all the steps for gel polish instead.

Chrome Nails Tutorial – DIY: Kromnaglar
Before you begin: Start with prepping your nails

Before we start this tutorial you need to have clean nails. So take the time to cut, file and shape your nails. Once you have the basic shape to your nail, use a cuticle stick to push back any skin off your nail plate.

1. Buff your nails

Gels does not stick to “shiny” so gently buff your nails with a buffer.

2. Clean away the nail dust

Use a soft brush to remove the nail dust.

Chrome Nails Tutorial – DIY: Chromenaglar
3. Apply a thin layer of polish

So as I’m using Lackryl I only apply Lackryl in this step. But if you are using a gel polish you need to first apply a primer, let it dry, then apply a base coat and cure it before you apply your gel polish. Two things to keep in mind is to apply a very thin layer of any gel and to keep a small distance away from the edge of your nail.

4. Cure under UV or LED lamp

Follow the gel polish manufacturers instruction and cure your nails in the light for the recommended time. Repeat with a second coat.

Lackryl Pale Rose Akrylnagellack
This is how my nails looked like after 60 seconds, having applied one coat of the color Pale Rose from Lackryl.

Chrome Nails Tutorial – DIY: Chromenaglar med Lackryl
5. Apply the chrome pigment

Now to the really fun part! Use a little applicator (usually comes with the chrome pigment) and wipe the chrome nail powder across the nail until the nail begins to reflect light. This step is really hypnotizing. It’s almost a pity that it goes so fast to get the mirror finish on all nails.

Chrome Nails Tutorial – DIY: Kromnaglar
The chrome pigments are just so cool. Even though they cover the whole polish, feel free to experiment with the pressure and create different effects or an ombre look with your applicator.

Chrome Nails Tutorial – DIY: Chromenaglar med Lackryl
6. Apply your top gel coat

Apply a thin layer of a top coat and cure it in the lamp. Some gels leave a sticky layer on after curing the top gel. If this is the case, simply take a cotton ball dipped in isopropyl alcohol and wipe over the sticky surface.

Finish off your chrome gel manicure by applying a cuticle oil and massaging in some hand cream to get that extra salon finish.

Done and done! You now have some really eye-catching nails that will last for around a month.