A Detailed Introduction for Oligopeptide Synthesis

A classification of polypeptides, generally having a molecular weight range of less than 1000 Daltons, also known as small peptides, oligopeptides, oligopeptides, or small molecule active peptides, generally composed of 2- to 6 amino acids, more than A polypeptide called a polypeptide and having more than 50 amino acids is called a protein. The difference with other peptides is that they can be directly absorbed in the human body without digestion. Oligopeptides can be further divided into: oligopeptide-1, oligopeptide-3, oligopeptide-5 and the like, and oligopeptide-6 is also called hexapeptide or hexapeptide.

 

Absorption theory

The traditional theory of protein digestion and absorption believes that the protein is in the intestinal lumen and is formed by peptide protease and chymotrypsin to form free amino acids and oligopeptides (containing 2 to 6 amino acid residues). The oligopeptide is completely hydrolyzed by peptidase. It becomes a free amino acid and enters the blood circulation as a free amino acid. According to this theory, protein provides amino acids only to the animal’s body, that is, the nutrition of the protein is the nutrition of the amino acid. Therefore, as long as we provide the animals with sufficient essential amino acids, the animals will be able to obtain satisfactory performance. However, many studies have shown that the amount of proproteins that can be replaced by monomeric amino acids is limited. Feeding low levels of protein to livestock and supplementing synthetic amino acid diets does not yield optimal performance and feed efficiency. To achieve both of these goals, the diet must have the lowest amount of proprotein and oligopeptide.

 

Transport mechanismThe intact peptide enters the epithelial cells, and the presence of absorption pathways within the cell is neglected for a considerable period of time. The possibility of peptide transport was mentioned more than 100 years ago (Matthews, 1987). Agar (1953) confirmed the transport of intact di-glycans across the intestinal epithelium of rats. However, due to the influence of traditional protein digestion and absorption theory, scholars are not easy to accept other absorption methods, and because the diglyceride is considered to be a special dipeptide, its molecular weight is small, so the importance of this discovery. Not recognized. It was not until the 1960s that Newey and Smyth (1959, 1960) provided information on the complete absorption of peptides for the first time. They found out. The digestion products of proteins in the small intestine not only have amino acids, but also a large number of oligopeptides, and the peptides can enter the intestinal mucosal cells intact and further hydrolyze in the mucosal cells to form amino acids into the blood circulation.

 

Later, between 1965 and 1980, more and more evidence was accumulated about the intestinal transport of intact short peptides. In particular, David M. Matthews of London and Siamak A of Pittsburgh, Adibi’s team confirmed that the possibility of peptide transport is not only academically meaningful, but may represent an absorption pathway for amino acid nitrogen uptake that is as important as the corresponding free amino acid uptake. . The absorption process of amino acids and peptides by the intestinal mucosa is complicated. It is generally believed that dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed into intestinal cells and then hydrolyzed by peptidases into the blood circulation in the form of free amino acids. Nutritional physiology and pharmacological tests have confirmed that in some cases intact peptides can enter the circulation through the peptide carrier of the intestinal mucosa.

 

Although the transport mechanism of oligopeptides is not fully understood, three can be confirmed: 1. The pH-dependent H+/Na+ exchange transport system does not consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP); 2. The active process depends on the concentration of H+ or Ca2+. , to consume ATP; 3, glutathione (GSH) operating system. Although the mechanism of animal oligopeptide transport is not fully understood, the transport of oligopeptides requires the recognition of vectors, and some mammalian small peptide vector genes have been cloned. By studying the structure and function of oligopeptide carriers, revealing the relationship between the carrier and oligopeptides and related ions, it is a hotspot in the research of oligopeptide transport mechanism. Many new scientific and technological achievements, such as enzymatic peptides, have been obtained in this respect. Bioactive peptides are based on food protein macromolecules containing high-quality protein, and are spliced ??and modified into the most active oligopeptides between macromolecular proteins and amino acids by using enzymes (enzyme scissors). Molecular active polypeptide, which has the characteristics of small molecular weight, easy absorption, and high nutritional value.

 

Absorption characteristics1. Do not need to digest, directly absorbed.2. No need to consume human energy when absorbing.3. Will not increase the burden of human gastrointestinal function.4. It has the characteristics of preferential absorption.5. Promote the body’s absorption with its own energy.6. Force the body to absorb when the body’s absorption function is lost.7. 100% is absorbed by the body.8. Fast absorption. It is 129,600 seconds faster than the body’s absorption of macromolecular proteins and 64,800 seconds faster than human amino acids.9. With a carrier role. Other nutrients for human consumption can be carried on the body and transported to human cells and tissues.10. Become a means of transportation in the human body and transport various trace elements to various parts of the human body.11. Has a strong diversity of activities and physiological functions.

 

Application fieldAccording to experts, oligopeptides with low molecular weight can have higher skin permeability than peptides, and are more easily absorbed by human skin. At the same time, due to the small molecular weight, biological activity has a qualitative leap. The smaller the molecular weight of the peptide, the shorter the “amino acid chain” and the easier it is to be absorbed and utilized by the body.

Expert analysis, due to OCO’s unique biological personality and outstanding functional performance, it has a huge application space in the field of daily cosmetics, shampoo and hair care, food and health products, biomedicine, and even textiles. Oligopeptides are widely used in the beauty field, leading the new trend of healthy skin care in China’s high-end beauty market.

 

About us

Creative Peptides is specialized in the process development and the manufacturing of bioactive peptides. We are dedicated to offering custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing as well as catalog products for customers in industry and research area.here are some our products like: Peptide Modification,De novo Peptide Design,Long Peptides Synthesis,Peptide Drug Discovery,etc.