Monoclonal Antibodies—a Valuable Asset in Human History (Part Two)

Abstract: Monoclonal antibody (McAb) was produced by B cell hybridoma cell line. Single antibody monoclonal antibody technology targeting only one antigenic determinant was first initiated in 1975 by Koehler of Germany and Milstein of the United Kingdom. The basic principle of McAb technology is that mouse myeloma cells can proliferate indefinitely and secrete immunoglobulins without antibody activity in vitro and in vivo, while spleen cells of immunized mice have the ability to produce antibodies, but cannot proliferate indefinitely. These two cells are fused into hybridoma cells using a fusion agent (PEG, etc.). Such hybridoma cells have the major features of the parental cells. It can not only proliferate in artificial culture, but also produce specific antibodies. Clones grown from a single cell can be selected by limiting dilution. McAb has many advantages, such as: high unity and homogeneity; high titer; immune antigen does not need to be purified, but pure antibodies can be obtained; different specificities (groups, types, strains) can be obtained; high yield, continuous production, etc. Among these advantages, especially the uniform high specificity, McAb has a very wide practical value, and has formed a very popular emerging industry in the world. Monoclonal antibody technology based on its simplicity Easy, fast, specific, and sensitive Ubiquitous application for disease diagnosis and treatment, food hygiene, etc. The field has broad application prospects.

Keywords: monoclonal antibody, preparation, application, prospects

The development prospect of monoclonal antibodies

Fully humanized mAb

Since the advent of hybridoma technology, monoclonal antibodies have been widely used. However, most of the monoclonal antibodies are of murine origin, and anti-mouse antibodies are produced in vivo during repeated clinical administration, so that the clinical efficacy is weakened or disappeared. Therefore, the ideal monoclonal antibody for clinical application should be of human origin. Therefore, the genes for controlling spleen production in mouse fertilized eggs can be cut off by genetic engineering and gene processing technology, and the human spleen-producing genes in human cells can be extracted and transferred into mouse fertilized eggs to be fertilized. After adult mice, antibodies produced by the spleen in mice are fully humanized antibodies. This technology has good development and application prospects.

High targeting

Monoclonal antibody drug therapy mainly uses its targeting to intervene in various pathways of the development and progression of target cells, or to activate the host’s immunity to tumors. Therefore, the target is the key to study different kinds of antibody drugs. With the continuous development of biomedicine, there will be a more targeted monoclonal antibody and a more powerful “warhead”.

Clinical diagnosis and detection

Monoclonal antibodies are superior to existing antisera in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, immune diseases, endocrine diseases and early pregnancy diagnosis. For example, AIDS has become a major “killer” for human beings. It spreads very quickly and has a certain incubation period in the human body. The patient has no response, which delays the optimal treatment period. For example, HIV is extracted to make a monoclonal antibody, and the monoclonal antibody is made into a card of the same size as the pH test paper. So just put a small card in your mouth and you can detect if you have AIDS. This is a good way to prevent and detect AIDS and to enable patients to receive treatment earlier.

Lifetime immunity

The monoclonal antibody against a certain antigen is introduced into the DNA fragment which controls the synthesis of the corresponding monoclonal antibody by protein engineering technology, and then the corresponding DNA fragment is transferred into the human body by gene therapy technology, but the DNA fragment can be expressed in the body cell and replicated in the human body. Lifetime contains the corresponding antibodies against the corresponding pathogens.

Chimeric antibodies and humanized antibodies are also promising in the field of genetic engineering. If you are interested, please check them out!

References

[1] Hon-Ming Lam, Xun Xu, Xin Liu et al. Resequencng of 31 wild and cultivated soybean genomes identifies patterns of genetic diversity and selection [J]. Nature Genetics, 2010, 42(1038): 1053-1059

[2] Qingyou Xia, Yiran Guo, Ze Zhang et al. Complete Resequening of 40 Genomes Reveals Domestication Enents and Genes in Silkworm [J]. Science, 2009, 326(5951): 433-436