What are protein arrays?
Protein array, a high-through detection system, is used to track proteins’ interactions and activities, therefore, it can determine their function and determining function on a large scale.
The basic theory of it
The Detection object of array is protein instead of DNA. It is different from the gene array, which is used to detect gene expression on the level of mRNA. It detects the model of expression on the level of protein.
There are two formats of it: antibody arrays and target protein arrays. The first is used to recognize the protein and other molecules from samples by using the antibody on the format. The other one is used for detecting protein or other molecules with the protein on format. Such as, the function of drugs, antibody, nucleic acids, lipids or other proteins.
With the advantage of high-through detection, protein array is the best tool to study the function of protein. What’s more, because of the diverse proteins and complex function of protein in creature cells, this product with the versatile capacity in handling samples and high-through detection utilizes to simplify and accelerate progress in the study of its function. The most used method for its detection is fluorescence labeling. Of course, other labels also can be used in this detection. Such as, affinity, photochemical or radioisotope tags.
In the study of biochemical activities of proteins, three types of them are widely used.
The first one is analytical microarrays. It is also called capture arrays. In this field, a library of antibodies, aptamers or affibodies is arrayed on the support surface. Because each of them will bind to specifically to a particular one, so they are used as capture molecules.
The second one is called functional one, also known as target one. They are different from analytical arrays. It is mainly formed with arrays, which contains full-length functional proteins or its domains. These are mainly used to study the biochemical activities of the entire proteome in a single experiment.
The last one is reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). In this field, it is mainly including complex samples like tissue lysates. And RPPA allow for the determination of the presence of altered proteins or other agents, which might be the result of disease.
These are main functions and features of this useful product. It is widely used in many fields. So it is very useful for scientists.