What is an autoantibody?
Autoantibodies are antibodies that target tissues, organs, cells, and cellular components. The growth, development and survival of the human body have the maintenance of a complete autoimmune tolerance mechanism. The normal immune response has a protective defense effect, that is, it does not react to its own tissues and components. Once the integrity of self-tolerance is destroyed, the body regards its own tissues and components as “foreign substances”, and an autoimmune reaction occurs to produce autoantibodies. Normal human blood may have low titers of autoantibodies, but no disease occurs. However, if the titer of autoantibodies exceeds a certain level, it may cause damage to the body and induce disease.
There are many kinds of autoimmune diseases antibodies , the most important of which are antinuclear antibodies. In addition, anticardiolipin antibodies, neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, anti-mitochondrial antibodies, anti-erythrocyte antibodies, anti-platelet antibodies, anti-endothelial cells antibodies, anti-neurovirus antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, anti-insulin bodies Antibodies and the like are also autoantibodies.
Reasons for autoantibody production:
Antibodies are generally produced by the immune system by foreign proteins or other substances (especially pathogenic bacteria) that enter the body and are used in immune reactions to eliminate harmful foreign substances. Usually, the immune system can recognize and ignore the body’s own cells, and does not produce antibodies to it; at the same time, the immune system does not overreact to substances (such as food) that are not threatened in the environment. However, under certain circumstances, the immune system recognizes the body’s own substances and treats them as foreign invaders, thereby producing antibodies (ie, autoantibodies) against these substances, triggering autoimmunity. These autoantibodies attack the cells, tissues, and organs of the body, causing an inflammatory reaction and causing damage to the body.
The production of autoantibodies may be due to the presence of some of the same molecular structures between pathogenic antigens (bacteria, viruses, etc.) and their own components: an immune response that cross-reacts with autoantigens; or some infectious agents that cause autoantigens Denatured, the immune system produces autoantibodies to these exposed new antigens.
The pathogenic effect of autoantibodies is still unclear. Whether it is the “cause” or “consequence” of autoimmune diseases has different opinions. For patients with high titers of autoantibodies, those without clinical symptoms may not need treatment, but should go to the hospital regularly. Review and review.
In tumors, inflammation, autoimmune diseases (such as lupus erythematosus, genital warts, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis), neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, etc., a large number of autoantibodies are produced and accumulated in patients. Some autoantibodies have emerged in the early stages of a specific disease, even before the onset of symptoms of the disease, providing a reliable disease biomarker for the early diagnosis; some autoantibodies are the body’s own protection against disease. Sexual antibodies, which provide new ideas for the treatment of the disease, as data from the world-renowned pharmaceutical giants show that 60% of the profits of large pharmaceutical companies have come from drugs that belong to antibodies. So how do you discover these potential autoantibodies?
Methods for screening for autoantibodies:
At present, the most suitable method for screening autoantibodies is the protein chip method. A protein chip often has thousands of protein spots, which can screen one autoantibody that can interact with these proteins at one time, and then pass fluorescent These autoantibodies can be found by incubation of the marker against the anti-Human IgG secondary antibody and fluorescence detection.
The principle is simple, but it is very difficult to do, why? This has to say about the binding process of antibodies to antigens. In short, the corresponding antibody recognizes a specific epitope on the antigen and then binds it. The epitopes are divided into two types, linear epitopes and non-continuous epitopes. A linear epitope consists of a contiguous sequence of amino acids. An antibody that recognizes a linear epitope recognizes this amino acid sequence and produces an antigen-antibody binding reaction; a non-contiguous epitope is composed of a discontinuous amino acid, which is correct by the antigenic protein. After folding, they are close together and recognized by the corresponding antibody, producing an antigen-antibody binding reaction.
In the body, most autoantibodies are non-continuous epitopes that recognize antigens. Correct identification and screening of these autoantibodies requires that the proteins on the protein chip be full-length, correctly folded, and biologically functional. However, the traditional protein chip can only guarantee that the protein synthesized on the chip is full-length (some can not be guaranteed), can not guarantee the correct folding of the protein, and can not guarantee the normal biological function of the corresponding protein. Other problems affecting the screening of autoantibodies by traditional protein chips include high CV values (>30%), poor reproducibility, low resolution, high background signal, and inability to distinguish autoantibodies with low expression levels. Screening for autoantibodies with such protein chips is like fishing with a large network full of loopholes. Screening of autoantibodies with such protein chips has brought great resistance to researchers and companies in the research of antibody screen. Sengenics’ ImmunomeTM Protein Chip Research Platform, invented by Professor Jonathan Blackburn at the University of Cambridge in 1996, is a collaboration between Oxford and Cambridge. It is the only one in the world that is fully-length, correctly folded and functionally validated. Protein chip platform. Autoantibodies that recognize non-contiguous epitopes can be screened for advantages that cannot be replaced by other protein chip products.
The ImmunomeTM Protein Microarray Research Platform contains 1631 full-length, correctly folded and functionally validated human proteins, covering cancer antigens, transcription factors, kinases, signaling pathway molecules, etc., to meet the research needs of users in different directions. Daban’s low autoantibodies provide strong technical support as biomarkers. Compared to traditional protein chip products in the screening of autoantibody applications, Sengenics ImmunomeTM protein chip products can be described as “Skynet is restored, not leaking”, full-length, correct folding, functional verification, wide coverage, low coverage CV low background signal, high-resolution full-generation protein chip platform technology helps researchers and business users to “capture big fish” in the field of autoantibody research, and return home.