Mechanism of action of pancreatic cancer and related vaccines

With the improvement of people’s living standards and changes in life and work, more and more people are suffering from cancer, such as lung cancer, skin cancer, and liver cancer. In response to this situation, in addition to treating cancer, we should also prevent the occurrence of cancer from the source, such as the use of vaccine. Vaccine refers to a preventive biological product used for human vaccination to prevent and control the occurrence and prevalence of infectious diseases. The biological product refers to a preparation for prevention, diagnosis and treatment prepared by using a microorganism or a toxin thereof, an enzyme, a serum, or a cell of a human or an animal. With the development of science and technology, people’s understanding of cancer has deepened. Scientists believe that cancer vaccines can be developed to prevent and cure cancer. Cancer vaccines use the antigens of tumor cells to awaken the body’s immune system to fight cancer. There are many types of cancer vaccines, and there are different cancer vaccines for different cancers, such as lung cancer vaccines, throat cancer vaccines, pancreatic cancer vaccines, etc.

Pancreatic cancer:

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the digestive tract, which is highly malignant and difficult to diagnose and treat. About 90% of ductal adenocarcinomas occur in the ductal epithelium. The morbidity and mortality of ductal adenocarcinomas has increased significantly in recent years and its 5-year survival rate is <1%, which is one of the most serious malignant tumors. The early diagnosis rate of pancreatic cancer is not high, its operative mortality rate is high, and the cure rate is very low. The incidence of this disease in men is higher than in women, the ratio of male to female incidence is 1.5:1 to 2:1. The incidence of man is greater than premenopausal women, and the incidence of postmenopausal women is similar to that of men.

Symptoms of pancreatic cancer:

Pancreatic cancer has no specific initial symptoms, but the most common symptoms are upper abdominal fullness, discomfort and pain. If a middle-aged person over the age of 40 complains of upper abdominal symptoms, in addition to considering hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal diseases, the possibility of pancreatic cancer should also be considered.

  1. Pain: Pain is the main symptom of pancreatic cancer. 60% to 80% of patients haveupper abdominal pain, and 85% of these patients with pain can not undergo surgeryor the disease has reached advanced stage. Pain is generally unrelated to diet and is persistent, ranging from fullness, dull pain to severe pain. There is also radiation pain, pancreatic head cancer mostly manifests as right side radioactive pain, while body tail cancer mostly manifests as left side radioactive pain.
  2. Jaundice:In the past, the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer often used painless jaundice as the first or necessary symptom of pancreatic cancer. The occurrence of jaundice has beenan important basis for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, thus making the patients lose the opportunity for early diagnosis and surgery. Today, painless jaundice is still the most common symptom of pancreatic cancer, but about 50% of patients with this symptom have the opportunity to undergo radical surgery. The appearance of jaundice in the morning and evening is closely related to the location of cancer, and jaundice often occurs in cancer of the head of the pancreas. Jaundice may have fluctuations, manifested as complete or incomplete obstructive jaundice. Carcinomas in the tail of the body or away from the biliary pancreatic duct may cause jaundice due to lymph node metastasis to the extrahepatic bile duct or adhesion or buckling near the bile duct.
  3. Gastrointestinal symptoms:The most common gastrointestinal symptoms areloss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation or even nausea. Diarrhea is often steatorrhea.
  4. Weight loss, fatigue:Unlikeother cancers, pancreatic cancer often shows signs of weight loss and fatigue at the beginning of the cancer. These symptoms have nothing to do with the tumor site.
  5. Others:Pancreatic cancermay have high fever or even chills and other symptoms like cholangitis, so it is easy to confuse pancreatic cancer with cholelithiasis and cholangitis. Of course, when there is biliary obstruction and infection, there may be chills and high fever. Abdominal masses suggest that the cancer has reached an advanced stage, but sometimes the mass is a swollen liver and gallbladder, and pancreatic cancer is associated with a pancreatic cyst.

All of the above symptoms need to be differentiated from the symptoms of other digestive tract diseases, especially chronic pancreatitis. It is also necessary to pay attention to the identification of abdominal pain, because pancreatic cancer have abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and other symptoms. Chronic inflammation of the pancreas has been misdiagnosed and treated as cancer, and cancer has been misdiagnosed as inflammation, so other tests should be combined to identify these symptoms.

There are no very specific signs of pancreatic cancer, and although there is conscious pain, tenderness is not common in all patients. If there is tenderness, it is consistent with the site of conscious pain. The pancreas is located deep in the back of the abdomen, and if a lump is found there, the pancreatic cancer is mostly in the advanced stage. Chronic pancreatitis can also manifest as a mass, so it is difficult to distinguish it from pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer can cause dilatation of the bile duct and gallbladder in the liver and cholestasis of the liver, so it can also manifest as swollen liver and gallbladder. Ascites usually occurs in the late stage of pancreatic cancer and is mostly caused by peritoneal invasion and spread of cancer. Ascites may be bloody or serous, and hypoproteinemia of advanced cachexia may also cause ascites. However, one thing to note is that pancreatic cancer complicated with pancreatic cyst rupture forms pancreatic ascites. It is characterized by an increase in the amylase and high protein content in ascites after water is released. At this time, ascites does not mean the late stage of pancreatic cancer, so don’t give up the chance of surgery.

The mechanism of action of pancreatic cancer vaccine:

Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, which is highly malignant and has a very poor prognosis. Even with curative surgery, most patients have recurrence and metastasis early in the postoperative period. In order to change this situation, research on pancreatic cancer vaccines has begun in recent years. However, the regulatory T cell-mediated immune escape mechanism not only plays an important role in the development of tumors, but also inhibits the anti-tumor immune response of vaccines from the recognition, activation of differentiation to the entire stage of effect, thereby limiting the therapeutic effect of vaccine. .Clearing Treg and sensitizing the efficacy of pancreatic cancer vaccine has become an important direction in the treatment of pancreatic cancer in recent years.