The upstream of the gene sequencing industry is the supply of sequencing instruments, sequencing reagents and consumables. The midstream is mainly the processing and interpretation of sequencing services and sequencing data, and the downstream is the terminal application of sequencing services, including clinical testing and life science research. Benefiting from the decline in sequencing costs and the maturity of sequencing technologies, the application fields of gene sequencing are rapidly expanding. They can be divided into clinical applications and non-clinical applications. The application in clinical fields is currently developing rapidly, mainly including reproductive health screening, investigation, tumor gene detection and pathogen infection detection.
- Tumor gene detection
Prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, gene sequencing, comprehensive coverage.
The current application of gene sequencing in tumors mainly includes tumor susceptibility gene screening, early tumor diagnosis, tumor accompanying diagnosis and medication guidance, and tumor surveillance.
- Tumor susceptibility gene screening
The occurrence and development of tumors are the result of the combination of genetic factors and environmental factors. Gene changes are at the core of them, abnormal expression of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and unlimited tumor cells are the molecular basis of proliferation. Therefore, through genetic testing, it is helpful to assess the risk of tumors from the source, and implement effective monitoring, early warning and intervention before the individual suffers from the disease and reduce the risk of cancer.
- Early diagnosis of tumors
About 90% of malignant tumors have no obvious symptoms in the early stage. When they are found, they are usually in the middle and late stage. Therefore, early detection, prevention and treatment are important means to prevent cancer and slow down the development of cancer. At present, the clinically mature early tumor diagnosis technology is mainly realized by detecting circulating tumor cells (CTC), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) and exosomes. When a tumor occurs, a small number of tumor cells and DNA and RNA fragments released from apoptotic tumor cells enter the bloodstream. By extracting peripheral blood and capturing this part of cells, DNA and RNA, they can be sequenced in the early stage of tumorigenesis. Thus to confirm it and improve the cure rate.
- Tumor-associated diagnosis and medication guidance
Studies have shown that tumors are often not the result of a single genetic mutation, usually caused by the interaction of multiple genes. Therefore, even with the same type of tumor, the difference at the genetic level may be huge, so it is necessary to group the tumors by gene sequencing, and then adopt different treatment plans. In addition, the treatment effect of the same drug on different patients often differs greatly. This individual difference depends largely on the genetic difference of the individual. Therefore, according to the patient’s genetic test results and the pharmacogenetic mechanism, a more targeted drug regimen can be developed for the patient, which can greatly improve the effectiveness of the treatment and maximize the survival of the patient.
- Surveillance of tumors
Most tumors have a greater risk of recurrence after treatment. By means of genetic testing, tumor recurrence can be monitored in a timely and accurate manner, and the goal of timely treatment is finally achieved.
- Detection of pathogen infection
The market potential should not be underestimated
The detection of pathogenic infection mainly uses the second-generation sequencing technology, combined with the analysis method of metagenomics, to quickly and accurately detect the pathogens infected by the patients, so as to timely solve the problem and improve the cure rate. The detection of pathogenic infections at this stage is also mainly used for difficult and critically ill patients.
We believe that in the future, improving the quality of gene sequencing detection, speeding up detection, and broadening the number of diseases covered by gene sequencing to reduce detection costs are the development direction of the industry. In addition, the gene bank accumulated in the previous clinical tests is expected to be gradually converted into products after 5-10 years, becoming the key factor of the genetic sequencing company to finally establish its market position.